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Within Western civilization, the progression of governments is represented by the Aristotelian triad of monarchy, where the power is held by one, oligarchy, where the power is held by few, and democracy, where the power is held by many. The first democratic form of government appeared in Greece about 510 BC. Rome adapted Greek democratic institutions with the power vested in the Roman Senate. Eventually, power was transferred to the Roman emperors, and, gradually, the office of the emperor became hereditary. With the passage of time, monarchy changed from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy. Following the Aristotelian triad of governments, democracies reappeared during the past two centuries. Pareto in his 'iron law of oligarchy' argued that with a passage of time democracies become oligarchies, where there are few who matter. To break this circle, Plato in his Republic described the ideal state ruled by philosopher-kings.